In the Old Kingdom,
Lower Egypt and Abydos were of greater importance than Upper Egypt. It
as not until later in the Middle Kingdom and in the New Kingdom eras that
Thebes reached the height of its power. During the Ptolemaic/Roman period,
Thebes's importance waned again as power shifted to the new capital of
Alexandria. Little documentation is available about when each of Egypt's
Kings reigned but as research techniques become more sophisticated, more
information is discovered and dating can be more defined.
It is important to remember that each King had a list of different names.
When a new king came to the throne, Egypt not only had a new monarch it
had a new beginning both in terms of philosophy and time. This coupled
with a multiplicity of names can cause confusion. Egyptologists traditionally
name the periods when there was prosperity and stability as Kingdoms and
those of instability and unrest as the Intermediate Periods.